Please contact us if you have any questions or concerns regarding communicable disease reporting.
Current Diseases of Interest
What is influenza?
Influenza, also known as the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Infection with the flu virus can result in mild to severe illness with life-threatening complications. The flu virus is generally active in the United States from October through May, peaking anywhere from late December through March.
What are the symptoms?
The symptoms of influenza include:
- Extreme tiredness
- Muscle Pain
- Dry cough
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
Who Should be Vaccinated?
While everyone should get a flu vaccine, it is especially important that certain people get vaccinated due to being at high risk of infection or complications. These people include:
- Children younger than 5 years, and especially children under 2 years
- Adults 65 years of age or older
- Pregnant women
- People with medial conditions such as asthma, chronic lung disease, heart disease, diabetes, weakened immune systems, and morbid obesity.
- Health care workers
What is Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus, also known as RSV, is a respiratory virus that causes cold-like symptoms that are usually mild. While most people recover on their own, some can have serious illness that requires hospitalization. RSV also is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than 1 year old.
What are the symptoms of RSV?
RSV symptoms can appear in stages instead of all at once. In young infants, symptoms may only include decreased activity, irritability, and difficulty breathing. In those other than infants, symptoms include:
- Runny nose
- Decreased appetite
What is mpox (monkeypox)?
Monkeypox, whose name is transitioning to mpox, is a rare disease caused by an infection with the monkeypox virus. The mpox virus is a part of the same family of viruses as variola virus, the virus that causes smallpox.
What are the symptoms of mpox?
Symptoms typically appear one to two weeks after infection. Some individuals may experience multiple symptoms and others may only experience a rash.
Common symptoms of mpox include:
- Muscle aches and backache
- Swollen lymph nodes
- A rash that can appear as a pimple or blister on the face, inside of mouth, hands, feet, chest, genitals, or anus
Who should get vaccinated?
The U.S. government has two stockpiled vaccines—JYNNEOS and ACAM2000—that can prevent mpox in people who are exposed to the virus. Vaccines may be recommended for people who have had or may have contact with someone who has mpox, or for healthcare and public health workers who may be exposed to the virus.
Contact your healthcare provider if you think you have been exposed to mpox or are at high risk for exposure.
For more information read the CCPHD fact sheet or visit the CDC’s mpox page here
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease called Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs. TB is spread through the air from one person to another when a person with active TB coughs or sneezes. TB can also affect the kidney, spine, and brain. TB can cause death when not treated correctly.
- A cough that lasts 3 weeks or more
- Fevers or chills
- Night sweats
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Constant tiredness
- Coughing up blood (occasionally)
People who develop the above symptoms should be evaluated by a health care provider. Your provider may administer a TB skin test.
If diagnosed with TB, health care providers will recommend that close contacts (household members, friends, classmates, etc.) be tested for TB.
When can I get a TB test?
TB skin tests are done at the Health Department. Clinic hours are found [HERE]. TB tests are read no sooner than 48 hours and no later than 72 hours after the skin test is given. Refer to the Clinical Schedule for testing and reading dates and locations. No appointment is needed.
What does a positive TB test mean?
A positive TB test means that someone has been exposed to the TB germ and follow-up evaluation is needed.
You can learn more about Tuberculosis via our fact sheet, found [HERE].
Please see [Hours & Locations] page for your nearest CCPHD clinic.
View the Tuberculosis fact sheet
What is poliomyelitis (polio)?
Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the central nervous system. The poliovirus can occasionally cause paralysis. Since polio immunization has become widespread, cases of polio are very rare.
What are the symptoms of polio?
Up to 95% of all polio infections do not have any symptoms. Initial symptoms of polio usually occur 6 to 20 days after infection and include fever, fatigue, nausea, flu-like symptoms, stiffness in the neck and back, and pain in the limbs. Aseptic (non-bacterial) meningitis occurs in 1-2% of infections. Roughly 1 in 100 infections lead to paralysis, usually in only one side of the body. Many persons with paralytic polio recover completely. Weakness or paralysis still present 12 months after illness is usually permanent. Among those paralyzed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized.
Noroviruses are a group of highly contagious viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) in humans. Norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in the United States. It is commonly referred to as stomach flu or stomach bug. Norovirus is not related to the flu.
What are the symptoms of norovirus?
Symptoms of norovirus illness usually begin about 24 to 48 hours after ingestion of the virus, but they can appear as early as 12 hours after exposure. The illness usually lasts 1 to 3 days.
The most common symptoms of norovirus are:
- Stomach Pain
- Body aches
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks. Lyme disease can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system.
What are the symptoms of Lyme disease?
Early symptoms usually begin within a month of exposure. Arthritis, cardiac, and neurologic complications may take weeks or months to appear in untreated persons.
Early symptoms of Lyme disease are similar to flu symptoms and include:
- Stiff neck or muscle/joint/neck pain
- Slowly expanding “bull’s eye” rash (erythema migrans)
Effects that may result from chronic or long-term exposure to Lyme disease are:
- Facial palsy (loss of muscle tone on one or both sides of the face)
- Heart abnormalities
Calhoun County was included in the 2017 Hepatitis A outbreak in Southeast Michigan. Hepatitis A is a contagious, but vaccine-preventable, liver disease which is a result of infection with the Hepatitis A virus. It is often spread when a person ingests fecal matter from food or water contaminated with infected feces.
- Loss of appetite and/or nausea
- Jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin)
- Dark urine
- Joint pain
- Abdominal pain
- Abnormal liver tests
- Pale stool
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Hepatitis C is a viral infection of the liver. It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness that attacks the liver. Hepatitis C can be either “acute” or “chronic.” It is recommended that everyone over the age of 18 should be tested at least once and annually if at risk for Hepatitis C.
Acute Hepatitis C virus infection is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the Hepatitis C virus. For most people, acute infection leads to chronic infection.
Chronic Hepatitis C virus infection can be a lifelong infection if left untreated. Chronic hepatitis C can cause serious liver problems, liver damage, scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), liver cancer and even death.
What are the symptoms of Hepatitis C?
Only 20%-30% of newly infected people develop symptoms of acute illness. Symptoms of hepatitis C include loss of appetite, fever, nausea and vomiting, extreme fatigue, stomach pain, dark-colored urine, clay-colored stools or yellowing of the skin or eyes. Some people may have no symptoms.
Early symptoms of hepatitis C appear 2-12 weeks after exposure, usually within twelve weeks. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C have no symptoms and can infect others without knowing it.
A person may be contagious one week or more before the onset of the first symptoms. This chronic infection may be lifelong. A person infected with hepatitis C may also be able to give the disease to others for the rest of their lives if not successfully treated.