REGULATION ELIMINATING SMOKING
IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE WORKSITES AND PUBLIC PLACES,
NOT INCLUDING BARS & RESTAURANTS
Sec. 1000. Title
This article shall be known as the Calhoun County Clean Indoor Air Regulation.
Sec. 1001. Authority
This regulation is hereby adopted pursuant to authority conferred upon local health departments by the Michigan Public Health Code, 1978 P.A. 368, as amended.
Sec. 1002. Jurisdiction and Administration
- This regulation shall have effect throughout Calhoun County in all areas incorporated and unincorporated, which includes cities, villages, and townships.
- The Health Officer shall have responsibility for administering and enforcing this regulation, including all amendments hereafter adopted unless otherwise specifically stated.
Sec. 1003. Purpose
- Calhoun County hereby finds and declares that:
- The 2006 U.S. Surgeon General's Report, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, has concluded that (1) secondhand smoke exposure causes disease and premature death in children and adults who do not smoke; (2) children exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), acute respiratory problems, ear infections, and asthma attacks, and that smoking by parents causes respiratory symptoms and slows lung growth in their children; (3) exposure of adults to secondhand smoke has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease and lung cancer; (4) there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke; (5) establishing smoke-free workplaces is the only effective way to ensure that secondhand smoke exposure does not occur in the workplace, because ventilation and other air cleaning technologies cannot completely control for exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smoke; and (6) evidence from peer-reviewed studies shows that smoke-free policies and laws do not have an adverse economic impact on the hospitality industry. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006.)
- Numerous studies have found that tobacco smoke is a major contributor to indoor air pollution, and that breathing secondhand smoke (also known as environmental tobacco smoke) is a cause of disease in healthy nonsmokers, including heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and lung cancer. The National Cancer Institute determined in 1999 that secondhand smoke is responsible for the early deaths of approximately 53,000 Americans annually. (National Cancer Institute (NCI), "Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the report of the California Environmental Protection Agency." Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10, Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (NCI), August 1999.)
- The Public Health Service's National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed secondhand smoke as a known carcinogen. (Environmental Health Information Service (EHIS), "Environmental tobacco smoke: first listed in the Ninth Report on Carcinogens," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Public Health Service, NTP, 2000; reaffirmed by the NTP in subsequent reports on carcinogens, 2003, 2005.)
- Based on a finding by the California Environmental Protection Agency in 2005, the California Air Resources Board has determined that secondhand smoke is a toxic air contaminant, finding that exposure to secondhand smoke has serious health effects, including low birth-weight babies; sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS); increased respiratory infections in children; asthma in children and adults; lung cancer, sinus cancer, and breast cancer in younger, premenopausal women; heart disease; and death. (Appendix II Findings of the Scientific Review Panel: "Findings of the Scientific Review Panel on Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant as adopted at the Panel's June 24, 2005 Meeting," California Air Resources Board (ARB), September 12, 2005.)
- There is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke. (Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: lung cancer and other disorders, the report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 4, Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (NCI); Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), August 1993; California Environmental Protection Agency, "Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke," 1997; California Air Resources Board, "Proposed identification of environmental tobacco smoke as a toxic air contaminant," Sacramento: California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal-EPA), Air Resources Board, Stationary Source Division, Air Quality Measures Branch, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), September 29, 2005.)
- Inasmuch as there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) bases its ventilation standards on totally smoke-free environments. ASHRAE has determined that there is currently no air filtration or other ventilation technology that can completely eliminate all the carcinogenic components in secondhand smoke and the health risks caused by secondhand smoke exposure, and recommends that indoor environments be smoke-free in their entirety. (Samet, J.; Bohanon, Jr., H.R.; Coultas, D.B.; Houston, T.P.; Persily, A.K.; Schoen, L.J.; Spengler, J.; Callaway, C.A., "ASHRAE position document on environmental tobacco smoke," American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 2005.)
- These studies find that tobacco smoke is a major contributor to indoor air pollution, and that breathing secondhand smoke is a cause of disease, including cancer, heart disease, and stroke in nonsmokers. At special risk are infants, children, teens, pregnant women, elderly people, nonsmokers with long-term exposure to secondhand smoke, individuals with cardiovascular disease, and individuals with impaired respiratory function, including the young, asthmatics, and those with obstructive airway disease. Also harmed are those with health conditions induced by breathing secondhand smoke including asthma, lung cancer, heart disease, respiratory infection, decreased respiratory function, including bronchoconstriction and broncho-spasm.
- Accordingly, Calhoun County finds and declares that the purpose of this regulation is to protect the public health and welfare by regulating smoking in public places and places of employment and recreation.
Sec. 1004. Definitions
- The following words and phrases, whenever used in this regulation, shall be construed as defined in this section:
- "Business" means any sole proprietorship, partnership, joint venture, corporation, or other business entity formed for profit-making purposes, including retail establishments where goods or services are sold as well as professional corporations and other entities where legal, medical, dental, engineering, architectural, or other professional services are delivered.
- "Business vehicle" means a car, bus, van, or other motorized unit which is owned or leased by an employer for the use of employees.
- "Convention hall" means any enclosed area where public or private groups assemble to engage in business or social functions.
- "Employee" means any person who is employed by any employer in the consideration for direct or indirect monetary wages or profit, and any person who volunteers his or her services for a nonprofit or business entity.
- "Employer" means any person, business, partnership, corporation, including a municipal corporation, or non-profit entity, which employs the services of one or more individual persons.
- "Enclosed area" means all space between a floor and ceiling which is enclosed on all sides by solid walls or windows (exclusive of door or passage ways) which extend from the floor to the ceiling, including all space therein screened by partitions which do not extend to the ceiling or are not solid, office landscaping, or similar structures.
- "Food concession" means a food storage, preparation, or dispensing operation at a state or county fair.
- "Food service establishment" means a fixed or mobile restaurant, coffee shop, cafeteria, short order café, luncheonette, grill, tearoom, sandwich shop, soda fountain, tavern, bar, cocktail lounge, nightclub, drive-in, industrial feeding establishment, private organization serving the public, rental hall, catering kitchen, delicatessen, theater, commissary, or similar place in which food or drink is prepared for direct consumption through service on the premises or elsewhere, and any other eating or drinking establishment or operation where food is served or provided for the public. Food service establishment does not include: i) a motel that serves continental breakfasts only; ii) a food concession; iii) a bed and breakfast that has 10 or fewer sleeping rooms, including sleeping rooms occupied by the innkeeper; iv) a bed and breakfast that has at least 11 but fewer than 15 rooms for rent, if the bed and breakfast serves continental breakfasts only; or v) a child care organization regulated by Michigan law unless the establishment is carrying out an operation considered by the State of Michigan to be a food service establishment.
- "Public place" means any enclosed area to which the public is invited or in which the public is permitted, including but not limited to, banks, educational facilities, health facilities, laundromats, public transportation facilities, reception areas, retail food production and marketing establishments, retail service establishments, retail stores, theaters, and waiting rooms. A private residence is not a "public place."
- "Service line" means any indoor line at which one (1) or more persons are waiting for or receiving service of any kind, whether or not such service involves the exchange of money.
- "Smoking" means inhaling, exhaling, burning or carrying any lighted cigar, cigarette, pipe, weed, plant, or related substance or product.
- "Sports arena" means sport pavilions, gymnasiums, health spas, boxing arenas, swimming pools, roller and ice rinks, bowling alleys, and other similar enclosed areas where members of the general public assemble either to engage in physical exercise, participate in athletic competition, or witness sports events, excluding such facilities, or portions thereof, licensed as a food service establishment.
- "Tobacco specialty store" means a retail store utilized primarily for the sale of tobacco products and accessories and in which the sale of other products is merely incidental.
- "Worksite" means any enclosed area under the control of a public or private employer which employees normally frequent during the course of employment, including, but not limited to, work areas, employee lounges and restrooms, conference and class rooms, employee cafeterias, and hallways. A private residence is not a "worksite" unless it is used as a child care, adult day care, or health care facility.
Sec. 1005. Prohibition of Smoking in Public and Private Worksites and Public Places
- Smoking shall be prohibited in all enclosed public and private worksites and public places within the jurisdiction of Calhoun County, including, but not limited to, the following places:
- All enclosed areas of worksites and public places owned, rented, leased, or otherwise within the jurisdiction of Calhoun County, including business vehicles.
- Restrooms, lobbies, reception areas, hallways, and any other common-use areas.
- Buses, taxicabs, and other means of public transit within the jurisdiction of the County of Calhoun, and ticket, boarding, and waiting areas of public transit depots.
- Business vehicles.
- Retail stores and service lines.
- All areas available to and customarily used by the general public in all businesses and non-profit entities patronized by the public, including but not limited to, attorneys’ offices and other offices, banks, laundromats, hotels, and motels.
- All areas of galleries, libraries, and museums.
- Any facility which is primarily used for exhibiting any motion picture, stage, drama, lecture, musical recital, or other similar performance, except performers when smoking is part of a stage production.
- Sports arenas.
- Convention halls.
- Public and private meeting facilities.
- Every room, chamber, place of meeting, or public assembly, including school buildings under the control of any board, council, commission, committee, including joint committees, or agencies of Calhoun County or any political subdivision of the State of Michigan, to the extent such location is subject to the jurisdiction of Calhoun County.
- Waiting rooms, hallways, wards, and semi-private rooms of health facilities, including, but not limited to, hospitals, clinics, physical therapy facilities, doctors’ offices, and dentists’ offices.
- Lobbies, hallways, and other common areas in hotels, motels, multiple-tenant office buildings and malls, apartment buildings, condominiums, trailer parks, retirement facilities, nursing homes, and other multiple-unit residential facilities.
- Public places where bingo games are held.
- Eighty percent (80%) of hotel and motel rooms rented to guests.
- Notwithstanding any other provision of this regulation, any owner, operator, manager, or other person who controls any establishment or facility may declare that entire establishment or facility as a nonsmoking establishment.
Sec. 1006. Prohibition of Smoking in Places of Employment
- It shall be the responsibility of employers to provide a smoke-free worksite as set forth in this regulation.
- Upon the effective date of this regulation, each employer having an enclosed place of employment located within Calhoun County shall adopt, implement, make known, and maintain a written smoking policy. The policy shall contain, at a minimum, the following wording or requirements:
Smoking is prohibited in all enclosed areas within this worksite without exception. This includes common work areas, auditoriums, classrooms, conference and meeting rooms, private offices, elevators, hallways, medical facilities, cafeterias, employee lounges, stairs, restrooms, employer owned or leased business vehicles, and all other enclosed facilities.
- The smoking policy shall be communicated to all current employees at least three (3) weeks prior to its effective date, and at the time of employment of all other employees.
- All employers shall supply a written copy of the smoking policy upon request to any existing or prospective employee.
Sec. 1007. Prohibition of Smoking near Entrances, Windows, and Ventilation Systems
Smoking shall be prohibited near entrances, windows, and ventilation systems of all worksites and public places where smoking is prohibited by this regulation. Any individual who owns, manages, operates, or otherwise controls the use of any premises subject to jurisdiction under this regulation shall establish a no smoking area which extends twenty-five (25) feet from any entrances, windows, and ventilation systems to any enclosed areas where smoking is prohibited; such distance shall be sufficient to insure that persons entering or leaving the building or facility shall not be subjected to breathing tobacco smoke and to insure that tobacco smoke does not enter the building or facility through entrances, windows, ventilation systems, or any other means. All smoking trash receptacles shall be placed outside the no smoking area in order to discourage smoking in these areas.
Sec. 1008. Where Smoking is Not Regulated
- Notwithstanding any other provision of this regulation to the contrary, the following areas shall not be subject to the smoking restrictions of this regulation.
- Food service establishments.
- Private residences, except when used as a child care, health care facility, or adult day care facility.
- Tobacco specialty stores.
- Notwithstanding any other provision of this regulation, any owner, operator, manager, or other person who controls any establishment or facility described in this section may, but is not required to, provide outdoor smoking areas, including enclosed areas, provided such areas meet the requirements of Section 1007 of this regulation. These outdoor smoking areas shall not be worksites or public places; they shall only be utilized as smoking areas. No employee shall be required to work in any manner in these smoking areas.
- Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any owner, operator, manager, or other person who controls any establishment or facility described in this section may declare that entire establishment or facility as a nonsmoking establishment.
Sec. 1009. Posting of Signs
- "No Smoking" signs or the international "No Smoking" symbol (consisting of a pictorial representation of a burning cigarette enclosed in a red circle with a red bar across it) shall be clearly, sufficiently, and conspicuously posted in every building or other area where smoking is prohibited by this regulation. The signage shall be posted by the owner, operator, manager, or other person having control of such building or other area.
- Every public place where smoking is prohibited by this regulation shall have signs conspicuously posted at every entrance clearly stating that smoking is prohibited.
- All ashtrays and other smoking paraphernalia shall be removed from any area where smoking is prohibited by this regulation by the owner, operator, manager, or other person having control of such area.
Sec. 1010. Enforcement
- Enforcement of this regulation shall be implemented by the Health Officer, or his or her designee.
- Notice of the provisions set forth in this regulation shall be given to all applicants for a business license in Calhoun County.
- Any citizen who desires to register a complaint under this chapter may initiate enforcement through the Health Officer, or his or her designated staff.
- The Calhoun County Public Health Department shall require, while an establishment is undergoing otherwise mandated inspections, a "self-certification" from the owner, manager, operator, or other person having control of such establishment that all requirements of this regulation have been complied with.
- Any owner, manager, operator, or employee of any establishment regulated by this regulation shall inform persons who are violating this regulation of the appropriate provisions thereof.
- Notwithstanding any other provisions of this regulation, a private citizen may bring legal action to enforce this regulation.
Sec. 1011. Nonretaliation
No person or employer shall discharge, refuse to hire, or in any manner retaliate against any employee, applicant for employment, or customer because such employee, applicant, or customer exercises any right to a smoke-free environment afforded by this regulation.
Sec. 1012. Violations and Penalties
- It shall be unlawful for any individual who owns, manages, operates, or otherwise controls the use of any premises subject to jurisdiction under this regulation to fail to comply with any of its provisions.
- It shall be unlawful for any individual to smoke in any area where smoking is prohibited by the provisions of this regulation. Any individual violating this section shall be guilty of an infraction, punishable by either or both of the following:
- A warning citation.
- A fine not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100).
- Any individual who owns, manages, operates, or otherwise controls the use of any premises subject to jurisdiction under this regulation and on whose premises a violation of any provision of this regulation occurs shall be guilty of an infraction, punishable by:
- A warning citation for a first violation.
- A fine not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100) for a second violation within one (1) year from a finding of the first violation, provided that adequate time has elapsed between the first and second violation for the alleged violator to have received notice of the first violation.
- A fine not exceeding five hundred dollars ($500) for a third violation of this regulation within one (1) year from a finding of the first violation.
- A fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1000) for each additional violation of this regulation within one (1) year from a finding of the first violation.
- Within twenty (20) days after receipt of a citation issued under this section, the alleged violator may appeal the citation as provided in Section 2462 of the Michigan Public Health Code, 1978 P.A. 368, as amended. Further appeals, as provided by statute, may be to the Calhoun County Board of Health, or a committee thereof.
- Notwithstanding the existence and pursuit of any other remedy, the Health Officer or his/her designee, without posting bond, may maintain an action in a court of competent jurisdiction for an injunction or other process against any persons to restrain or prevent a violation of this regulation.
- Notwithstanding any other provisions of this regulation, an employee or a private citizen may bring legal action to enforce this regulation.
Sec. 1013. Public Education
The Calhoun County Public Health Department shall engage in a continuing program to explain and clarify the purposes and requirements of this regulation to citizens affected by it, and to guide owners, operators, and managers in their compliance with it. Such program may include publication of a brochure for affected businesses and individuals explaining the provisions of this regulation.
Sec. 1014. Other Applicable Laws
This regulation shall not be interpreted or construed to permit smoking where it is otherwise restricted by other applicable laws.
Sec. 1015. Severability
If any provision, clause, sentence, or paragraph of this regulation or the application thereof to any person or circumstances shall be held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect the other provisions of this regulation which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this regulation are declared to be severable.
Sec. 1016. Effective Date
- This regulation shall be effective January 1, 2008.
- Any business as a whole with more than 750 employees that has separate, enclosed smoking rooms as of August 1, 2007 and has written policies in place to restrict certain employees from exiting the building during working hours, shall comply with this regulation no later than December 31, 2009.